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Body Postures

POSTURE

Now a day we are so busy & roaming here & there with stress and all. In this way we can not think about our good posture, getting results in pain of cervical, back & joints. Even someone getting acquired deformities, e.g.; Torticollis, scoliosis, pelvic tilts etc. Because of our bad habits (in the sense of posture) we are assuming many physical problems day by day. Repetition of same positions or movements for prolonged periods, our body begins to compensate for the activity & lead misalignment of the body.

 

WHAT IS POSTURE?

In a physiological sense, posture is the relationship among the skeleton, muscles, and other tissues of the body as it is held upright against gravity. It is as important to good health as proper nutrition, exercise, and a good night’s sleep.In the orthopedic sense,it may be an indication of the soundness of the musculoskeletal system. It is the attitude which is assumed by body parts to maintain stability and balance with minimum effort and least strain during supportive and non supportive positions.

WHY DOES POSTURE MATTER?

Posture plays a pivotal role in the overall health and total efficiency of the body. Just 15 minutes of maintaining poor posture can exhaust the muscles and cause discomfort. Over time, poor posture will start a progression of pain conditions and health problems that can be easily avoided. Starting with fatigue, tight, achy muscles, joint stiffness, and pain, a lifetime of poor posture begins to affect bodily systems such as digestion, elimination, breathing, and the normal functioning of the nervous system.

POSTURAL CARE

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  • GOOD POSTURE

    The line of gravity goes through the body’s center of anteriorly, posteriorly or latrally. Whenever, the line of gravity move foreward, backward or laterally then skeletal muscles have to do more work to hold the body against gravity. See the gravity of line below.

    Good posture can make you more energetic on the field, in your exercise regimen, or in your day-to-day life. People looking to improve their posture can achieve some level of relief from nagging lower back pain with simple exercises that strengthen the muscles design to support the spine.

    Good posture is a way of doing things more effectively and efficiently. It is maintaining the optimal position of the bones, muscles, joints, and other tissues of the body, To function as nature intended: in way that causes less stress and requires less energy. It is also the optimal position of your vital organs, allowing them to function at peak efficiency as well. When your body is in neutral alignment, your weight is primarily supported by your skeleton, not your muscles, greatly reducing the stress and strain placed on the body.

  • BAD POSTURE

    Poor posture may be in sitting, standing, lying or our in ADL l(activities of daily living) When we think about poor posture, we often see someone slouching or hunched over. Poor posture, however, you are busy too much or include completely in job more than a static posture. It is the result of chronic bad habits as we perform daily activities. Particularly, if we continuously engage in repetitive motions, or maintain a position for long time, our bodies begin to compensate for the activity. Thus the body becomes out of alignment.

     WHY DOES POSTURE MATTER?

    Posture plays a pivotal role in the overall health and total efficiency of the body. Just 15 minutes of maintaining poor posture can exhaust the muscles and cause discomfort. Over time, poor posture will start a progression of pain conditions and health problems that can be easily avoided. Starting with fatigue, tight, achy muscles, joint stiffness, and pain, a lifetime of poor posture begins to affect bodily systems such as digestion, elimination, breathing, and the normal functioning of the nervous system.
     

    Postural Development at Birth Time (Primary Curve)

    The curve of entire spine found at birth is flexed, called PRIMARY CURVE. The curves that retain this position, those of the thoracic spine and sacrum, are there fore classified as primary curves of the spine. As the child grow.

    Secondary curves… (6-8 months)

    Appear are convex forward or extended. At about the age of 3 months, when the child begins to lift the head, the cervical spine becomes lordotic. In the lumbar spine, the secondary curve develops slightly later 6-8 months, when the child begins to sit up and walk.

    The child stands with a wide base to maintain balance, and the knees are flexed. The knees are slightly bowed (genu varum) until about 18 months of age. the child then becomes slightly knock knee (genu valgum) until the age of 3year.

    By the age of 6 years

    The legs should naturally straighten. The lumbar spine in the child has an exaggerated lumbar curve or excessive lordosis, Initially, a child is flat footed, or appears to be ,as result of minimal development of the medial longitudinal arch and the flat pad that is found in arch.

    During adolescence

    Posture changes because of hormonal influence with the onset of puberty and musculoskeletal growth. Human beings go through two growth spurts. One is …when they are very young & a more obvious one when they are in adolescence. this second growth spurts lasts 2.5 to 4 years. During this period, growth is accompanied by sexual maturation.

FACTORS AFFECTING POSTURES

Psychological

  • Emotional/Mental attitudes

    A subject’s emotional or mental attitudes may influence the behavior of his muscular system and in consequence, the stances or movements adopted. The state of mind is determinant when adopting postures, depressed people adopt different poses than happy people. Another factor that influence a person when adopting a pose is the people who surrounded him, that is, adopted poses depends on the people he has to deal with.

Physiological

  • 1. Age

    A considerable change in postural attitudes can be observed in the elderly. The aging process is characterized by a decrease of flexibility, strength, and power. The most common consequence of normal aging is the loss of skeletal muscle mass. Several studies have stated that many of the determinants for aerobic and anaerobic capacity change with age. In particular, muscle mass, which is central to both aerobic and anaerobic capacity, decreases with sedentary aging.

  • 2. Fatigue

    A study from Hashimoto defined fatigue from different points of views. Physiologists consider fatigue simply as a decrease in physical performance. Psychologists consider it as a condition affecting the mental process. Ergonomists and physicians lay stress on the consequences of fatigue.

  • 3. Body types

    The Ectomorph is a person who has a thin body build characterized by a relative prominence of structures developed from the embryonic ectoderm.

    The Mesomorph is a person who has muscular or sturdy body build characterized by a relative prominence of structure developed from the embryonic ectoderm.

    The Endomorph is a person who has a heavy or fat body build characterized by a relative prominence of structure developed from the embryonic ectoderm.

  • 4. Pregnancy

    Pregnancy, women carry a baby in their womb. Whenever a baby grows the weight gradually increases. Because of this the lumber curvature of mother is exaggerated. Therefore pregnancy may affect posture.

  • 5. Muscle imbalance

    Muscle imbalance may occur in neurological condition or trauma case. Muscle imbalance or muscle contractures are other cause of poor posture. For example, tight iliopsoas muscle increases lumber lordosis in the lumber spine. Pressure on a nerve root in the spine any where can cause a poor posture. Cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis, Parkinson’s, stroke, hyperextension of knee and many more problems causes of muscle imbalance and tend to poor posture.

  • 6. Respiratory condition

    Respiratory condition e.g.; (emphysema) General weakness, excess weight, loss of muscular balance or with trauma may also lead poor posture.

  • 7. Muscular/radiating pain

    Both the muscular system and the skeletal system work closely together to allow the human body to move. The combined action of joints, bones and skeletal muscles produces movements such as walking and running. These functions are posture and joint stability. Postures like sitting and standing are maintained because of muscle contraction. The skeletal muscles are continually making fine adjustments that hold the body in stationary positions. Because of Muscular or radiating pain, we could not assume a correct posture.

Anatomical

  • 1.Structural factors

    Structural deformities may be idiopathic or congenital development problems due to trauma, bad posture or pathological reason. Structural deformities involve mainly changes in the bone and therefore are not easily corrected by conservative treatment, may need surgery.

  • 2. Nonstructural factors

    The majority of nonstructural faulty postures are relatively easy to correct after the problem has been identified. Spasmodic torticollis, idiopathic scoliosis in the thorax region or lumber region may lead to poor posture.

Social & Cultural

  • 1.Bad habits

    Bad habits (in the sense of posture) very less peoples are stand in symmetrical position means equal weight bearing on both knees. No pelvic tilt. Hence a crowed of peoples slouch and hunch during sedentary work, standing or walking

  • 2.Modern life style

    Today’s time, all the people want to spend time with comfortably in their bedroom in fluffy/ spongy metros, drawing room, in the office, chair, sofa in front of television, computers, tab/mobiles or gossips in poor posture. They don’t know when they have tended to the malposture.

  • 3.Demand of work place

    Many types of jobs are in standing, sitting, lying, climbing stairs, fielding, and operating machines. Therefore we have to do work for our life span. Workload and prolong time in one position or repeated position can lead bad posture.

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